Africa, south of the Sahara
A huge, dark-grey animal with long, thick legs and exceptionally large ears. Its trunk is versatile, acting as nose and hand. Usually have long tusks.
The cow is smaller than the bull and has smaller and lighter tusks.
Found in areas ranging from the arid Kaokoland to dense forest and savanna or forest recording a high rainfall. Clear drinking water, other permanent water, shade and enough food, including grass and branches, are essential. Dependent on water.
Diurnal and nocturnal. Gregarious. Herds consist mainly of a cow and her descendants. Bulls form temporary male herds or live alone, especially the old ones, only joining the cows for mating. Large breeding herds with bulls also exist. It shows aggression when it lifts its trunk and head, spreads out its ears and trumpets, or kicks up dust. When drinking water it squirts it over itself or lies down to cool off. Enjoys wallowing in mud and rubbing against trees.
Branches, grass, leaves, bark, reed and fruit. May drink water once in four days or even daily. Water for drinking must be clear, may even dig in the sand for water.
Screams and trumpets. Keeps contact by deep rumbling.
One, rarely tow, calves born at any time throughout the year after a gestation period of approximately 22 months. Female has one pair of mammae between the front legs.
The lifespan of the elephant is approximately 65 years.