The Republic of Southern Africa, Namibia and Botswana (Kalahari region).
Large antelope, both sexes having long, straight horns. The black face has distinctive white marks and the tail is long and black.
The male is slightly heavier than the female and the horns are thicker and usually shorter.
Associated with open, dry landscape. Prefers open grass veld in semi-desert areas and open, dry savanna. May even penetrate open woodland in search of new grazing areas. Int the Kalahari it prefers the sand dune midland with scattered plant cover and short, annual grass.
There are nursing and mixed herds, territorial and other solitary males. Territorial males are tolerant of other males and often accompany mixed herds. They mark their territories by horning and scratching the ground and defecating in a squatting position so that the dung lies in a heap to retain the smell longer.
Grass, sometimes also tsammas, succulent rhizomes and tubers. Subsists without water for a long time, but drinks if available. Digs for water in sand at times.
Bellows like cattle.
A single young is born at any time throughout the year, after a gestation period of approximately 9 months.
The lifespan of Gemsbok is approximately 19 years.